1.Sugar: Natural fruit juice concentrate: can be replaced for refined white sugar. The rule of thumb is replace the sugar by half the amount of fruit juice.
2. Powdered Sugar: Use coconut powder. Purchase dry un-sweeted coconut, grind in a herb grinder to fine powder. Approx. 2 cups dried then add 1/4 cup nonfat instant dry milk. Mix together with fork, use as you would powdered sugar. Store in airtight container.
3. Thickener: Use Arrowroot ( you can usually get at store by corn starch) for acid fruits.
4. Chocolate: Carob powder: can be used in place of cocoa powder or chocolate. Same equal parts.
5. Baking Powder: use aluminum free.
6. White flour: Use whole wheat pastry flour, interchange for equal amounts.
7.Shortening: Use butter for equal amounts. Must be cold for pie crust.
8. Eggs: Use lecithin granules in place of eggs. Mix 2 teas. of lecithin granules with 1 Tbl of water (for 1 egg). Let the mixture dissolve for 1 min. before use, and mixing into recipe.
9. Table Salt: Use Sea Salt or Bio Salt. These tend to be stronger than regular salt.
10. Oils: Use cold pressed organic unrefined oils in uncooked recipes. Cooked recipes use pure oils, save your money and don't use extra virgin or cold pressed.
Oil substitute in baking: Use applesauce, use equal amounts.